Understanding the Objectives of Criminal Law

Los Angeles is governed by different laws that guide its residents on what they should and shouldn’t do. Any violation of the law is punishable and the degree of punishment depends on the extent of the offense. Severe violations of the law that causes serious damages are categorized under criminal offenses. These are weighed by the jury using the guidelines of criminal laws.

Offenses that fall under criminal law are murder, theft, battery, and sexual abuse. Even aiding and abetting, burglary, and assault are considered criminal offenses in Los Angeles and in most part of United States. Criminal offenses are enforced with corporal punishments in different forms and levels.

Criminal law enforcement is commonly done by -balancing the scales-. This is due to the thinking that criminals have to suffer the same way that their victims did. For example, a murderer deserves to undergo death penalty to balance the scales. This enforcement objective is called retribution.

Another enforcement objective is called deterrence, whether individual or general. Individual deterrence aims to punish the sole offender, while general deterrence aims to punish a greater group of society to discourage others from violating the law. A criminal attorney in los angeles may also be handling a case in which the law enforcers aim to incapacitate the client. Incapacitation is the act of extracting the offender from the society through death penalties or life imprisonment.

A criminal attorney in los angeles may also encounter law enforcers who aim only to rehabilitate the offender. This applies to criminal cases brought about by a certain form of addiction of the offender. There is also another form of enforcement objective called restitution where the only aim is to repair the damage done. These may seem like subtle consequences, yet these cases still need the assistance of criminal lawyers.

A criminal attorney in los angeles handles these cases because of his or her expertise in criminal law. Criminal charges are filed in courts and undergo a long process of stressful court proceedings. Once an accused person is proven guilty, enforcement of criminal law is done for different objectives.

The Affordability Of A Good Immigration Lawyer

Affording a good immigration lawyer these days is not an incredibly difficult endeavor. These counselors understand that their clients are often unable to pay the massive fees that are typically associated with legal services. Being able to work legally in the United States is enough of a challenge for these clients, so different pricing methods are definitely necessary. Most firms specializing in this type of law charge flat fees for their services, rather than hourly rates. This means that even if their attorneys require a long period of time to work the case, the price of the services will stay blissfully constant.

Just how high do these flat rates get, though? For starters, clients might have to pay initial consultation fees for an immigration lawyer’s services, and these fees generally hover around $100. Law firms usually can’t afford to spend too much time giving free consultations that don’t lead to any work. As for services like green card applications, the fees will vary by region. For example, the current price range for getting a basic fiance visa in Northern California ranges from $700 to $2,000. Potential consumers should consult with at least two or three counselors before coming to a final decision about who to hire.

It is important to remember that the attorneys with the highest fees aren’t always the best choice. These individuals work in a field where experience counts for a lot, because it usually takes many years to fully understand the ins and outs of the immigration process. Nevertheless, the attorneys who charge less might be doing so in order to keep their overhead low, or maybe they’re just philosophically opposed to charging high fees. Then again, an incredibly low fee might be a sign that the supposed attorney truly isn’t one at all. It is always crucial to check his or her bar membership.

Of course, even a flat fee may be beyond a client’s ability to pay. If that is the case, then it is possible to ask the immigration lawyer to split the workload. This means that the client and the counselor share the burden of the case at an hourly rate that’s lower. In this kind of arrangement, the counselor would only handle tasks such as consultation, document review, and interview attendance. Filling out applications, producing documents, and translation would be duties of the clientele. Not all law firms offer this unconventional option but you should always ask if you are in a financial bind.

If all else fails, there are nonprofit organizations with an immigration lawyer who can provide services at highly reduced rates or possibly for free in a few cases. There may be “no free lunch” in this field of law, but acquiring services is now more affordable than ever before.

To find an immigration lawyer, Philadelphia residents should visit .

Citizenship and Immigration

For many Americans, their U.S. citizenship issued at birth is something they dont think twice about. But for applying immigrants, citizenship is a serious goal.

Hopefully most American natural born citizens understand that citizenship is one of the most greatly desired gifts this countrys government can bestow on its citizens. For those of us who have not had to go through the process of becoming a U.S Citizen apart from being naturally born here, there is only one other way to become U.S. citizens and that is by the often times-lengthy process of what is known as “naturalization”.

Naturalization can often times be a complicated process so you should consult with an immigration lawyer rather than attempting this yourself. Even something as simple as travel within the country or state is something that a person needs to know the rules about and this is where an Immigration lawyer is needed so that you have someone to ask questions such as “How long does it take for USCIS to issue work permission and travel permission?” or “When should I renew my work and travel permission?”

Learning about your new country and its rights and the responsibilities that accompany citizenship is an important part of being a good citizen and at the USCIS and the Office of Citizenship they have developed a great amount of resources and a variety of educational materials that allow immigrants to learn more about U.S. history and government as they prepare for the naturalization test.

A final thought on the naturalization process; in addition to finding good counsel and being represented by an immigration lawyer, there are general requirements that the USCIS will look for by those who look to make our great country their home, to name just a few: good moral character, a knowledge and understanding of U.S. history and government, and favorable disposition toward the United States.

Kratom Basics

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree native to the jungles of Southeast Asia. It has been used by people in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia for centuries mostly to increase endurance for manual labor. Unlike many herbal remedies, the active constituents of Kratom, mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine have been identified and characterized. Both compounds are chemically related to yohimbine, but bind to mu, delta and kappa opiate receptors in the body and brain (mu opiate receptors underlie the pleasant and addictive effects of opiates like morphine and heroin).

Previously unknown in the west, it is becoming increasingly popular due to the activities of internet retailers, many of whom advertise it as a “legal high”. While this is true, Kratom has many legitimate uses aside from intoxication and has enormous potential as an alternative medicine for treating some very difficult to manage conditions.

Effects: In low doses, Kratom appears to be stimulant-like, providing extra energy and endurance. It is in higher doses that Kratom’s opiate-like effects become clear and users experience sedation, nausea and euphoria. Due to binding affinities for opiate receptors throughout the body, including the brain, Kratom’s effects are similar to many opiate analgesics including codeine and morphine. It produces states of intoxication that are similar to Opium and can be habit forming, albeit in a less intense way. Side effects of opiates can also be also present including itchiness and constipation.

Doses: The strength of Kratom is highly variable depending on the strain, supplier and time of year. A low dose varies from 2-4 grams and a high dose ranges from 5-10 grams. Doses higher than 10 grams, especially of high grade Kratom invariably cause unpleasant side effects including nausea, vomiting and motor agitation. Overdose and death has not been recorded with Kratom alone though it was detected in the blood of at least at least one polydrug death in Asia involving a whole cocktail of more harmful substances.

Method of consumption: There are various methods of consuming or extracting Kratom which can be acquired in various forms including whole leaf, crushed leaf and as a powder. The powdered form is easiest to deal with and will produce the greatest effect for the least amount of effort.

The simplest method of consuming kratom is to simply swallow the dry powder. This can be done relatively painlessly by pouring a little bit of water in the mouth, tilting one’s head back so that the water covers the throat, dumping in a pre-measured amount of Kratom from a piece of paper folded in half and swallowing. If done right the Kratom eater may not even taste the Kratom.
Eating Kratom dry delays the onset of effects and prolongs their duration. For a more rapid onset, Kratom can be simmered briefly in boiling water and then consumed as a tea. Due to the low solubility of active alkaloids in water, it is recommended that the plant material be consumed with the tea rather than filtered out.

Extracts: Alkaloids in Kratom, including mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine cannot readily be dissolved in water but can be extracted with other solvents. However, the effects of Kratom appear to be mediated by a wide range of different alkaloids and it is for this reason that extracts, sometimes labelled 10x, 30X or even 100X are often less potent than unaltered 1X plain leaf although one reported case of a a deadly overdose in Thailand involved Kratom extract in combination with other very strong drugs.
Medicinal Benefits and Heath Effects: Kratom has been used in Thailand traditionally to treat diarrhea and studies in rats have shown it to be as effective as Loperimide (Immodium AD) especially for the treatment of severe diarrhea (Chittrakarn, 2007).

Recently, chronic opiate users have begun to use Kratom for the treatment of opiate withdrawal (Vicknasingam, 2010). In most cases, Kratom can completely replace the opiate of abuse and relieves withdrawal symptoms even in very severe opiate users such as IV heroin addicts. Kratom itself can cause a physical dependance but its withdrawal symptoms are no where near as severe as that of illegal or prescription opiates and many addicts have found it useful to convert their addiction to Kratom first before quitting completely.

Because of its biological similarity to opiate analgesics, Kratom can successfully be used as an alternative for moderate to severe pain. It is less habit-forming than drugs such as oxycodone, morphine or hydrocodone that are traditionally used to treat conditions such as chronic back pain and may be just as effective.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that Kratom may be useful in alleviating symptoms of restles leg syndrome (RLS) although once habituated, withdrawal symptoms may make the condition temporarily worse.
Some of the compounds found in Kratom have been shown to have antioxidant properties and therefore are considered to be of significant health benefit. Additionally, consumption of Kratom can help add fiber to the digestive tract.

Legality: Kratom is completely legal in much of the west, including the United States and Canada. It is illegal to possess or sell in Thailand, Malaysia or Australia but is legal in Indonesia where much of the Kratom in western markets originate. It is not approved for human consumption by the FDA in the U.S. or relevant agencies in Canada and for this reason is not widely marketed at a large scale.

Sources: Kratom can be purchased in large quantities directly from growers but most customers in the United States and Canada prefer to order personal use quantities from reputable Kratom vendors in their own countries. Discretion is advisable when purchasing Kratom due to the large number of unscrupulous online retailers selling sub-par or even fake Kratom that is dangerous to consume.

Most Canadian customers buy from American sites but more Kratom stores from Canada, such as madamkratom.ca, have been appearing and offer lower shipping costs, faster delivery, and competitive prices. Nonetheless, many customers continue to order from American sources due to a lack of information or a perceived better value from U.S. sites.

Conclusion: Far from being just a “legal high” like Salvia, Kratom offers many health benefits for those interested in alternative medicines and may be a major godsend for those battling opiate addiction. While it is still largely unknown in the west, it is slowly becoming more popular and is readily acquired online.

References: Chittrakarn S, Sawangjaroen K, Prasettho S, Janchawee B, Keawpradub N. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 28;116(1):173-8. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Balasingam Vicknasingama,, Suresh Narayananb, Goh Teik Benga, Sharif Mahsufi Mansora The informal use of ketum (Mitragyna speciosa) for opioid withdrawal in the northern states of peninsular Malaysia and implications for drug substitution therapy. International Journal of Drug Policy 21 (2010) 283288

Wichian Tungtananuwat and Somsong Lawanprasert. Fatal 4×100; Home-made Kratom Juice Cocktail. J Health Res 2010, 24(1): 43-47

Hernia patch lawsuits

Hernia Patch Litigation Court Will Hear Claims by Patients With Non-Recalled Hernia Mesh and Patch Devices Manufactured by Bard, Inc. and Davol, Inc.

The court assigned to oversee the nationwide hernia patch and mesh lawsuits will hear claims of patients with both recalled and non-recalled hernia mesh and patch devices.
Over the last few years a number of patients have brought hernia mesh patch lawsuits against C.R. Bard, Inc., and Davol, Inc. alleging that their hernia mesh patch devices were defective and caused injuries. A large number of the claims were brought after an FDA hernia patch recall including claims based on defects in hernia mesh patches non-recalled hernia mesh patch devices.

Hernia patch lawsuits from across the United States have now been consolidated into a single court for all pretrial proceedings. In a recent ruling the court clarified the scope of the consolidated proceedings to include both recalled and non-recalled devices.

The federal Multi-District Litigation court has announced that it will hear hernia mesh and patch lawsuits involving both recalled and non-recalled devices manufactured by C.R. Bard, Inc., and Davol, Inc., including the following;
-All nine (9) models of Bard ComposiX Kugel Hernia Patches (Product Codes 0010201 through 0010209);
-All other Davol hernia patches with PET rings, including the Bard Kugel Hernia Patch; Bard VentraleX Hernia Patch; Bard CK Parastomal Patch; and Bard Modified Kugel Patch; and
-Other Davol hernia meshes composed of layers of polypropylene and ePTFE, including the Bard Composix E/X Mesh.

Hernia patch lawyers at The Johnson Law Firm, a national law firm representing a large number of patients who have been injured by the recalled Bard Composix Kugel Hernia Mesh Patch are evaluating claims by patients with non-recalled hernia patch and mesh products manufactured by Davol, Inc. and C. R. Bard, Inc. Hernia patch lawsuit information, hernia patch class action information, hernia patch recall information and claims evaluations are available at no cost to affected patients at and toll free at 1-866-374-0338.

Fixing The House Or Breaking The Law The Scoop On Hiring An Illegal Maid

An illegal immigrant is a person who has crossed a national border in any manner that violates the laws of immigration. People do this for a variety of reasons. Some feel this is their way out of poverty. They come to the United States to look for work. You may come across someone like this who seems to need your help. Perhaps you are looking for an affordable way to keep your home clean. You may consider the possibility of hiring an illegal immigrant as a maid. In that scenario, it would seem that both parties have something to gain.

Is it Wrong to Hire an Illegal Immigrant Maid?

On one hand, seeing a person in a desperate situation can naturally make a person want to help. The person may be very nice and just in a bad predicament. Your job offer could help feed this person’s family. Another reason people may wish to hire an illegal immigrant as a maid is to possibly get the labor for a lower amount than they would normally pay, because an illegal immigrant will not report them for substandard pay due to having an illegal status.

On the other hand, when considering whether or not to hire an illegal immigrant maid, it is important to remember that there are consequences that can go along with offering that help. Consider the fact that if you do, you could possibly be charged with a felony.

An alternative does exist in encouraging this person to apply for the guest worker program, which, if approved, would allow an illegal immigrant to remain legally employed without the risk of deportation. The guest worker program is a way for illegal immigrants to temporarily remain in the U.S. for employment purposes. Qualifying for the guest worker program will take away the risk of deportation.

Legalities

As mentioned on FairUS.org, knowingly encouraging or harboring an illegal alien, by assisting him or her in finding work or by providing employment, is a violation of federal law. Employment is defined as any service or labor. Is a maid considered an employee? The answer is not simple. Some may consider maid services to be domestic services.

According to The Boston Globe, a border protection chief is facing criminal charges for hiring illegal immigrants as maids. Perhaps a solution for him before hiring these maids could have been to encourage the illegal immigrants to apply for the guest worker program. If they had been approved, they could have been legally employed by him.

When You Should Hire A Houston Criminal Law Attorney

The legal system in the United States is very confusing to the average person because of the way codes are written and the particular language that is used. This is usually the reason why you should hire a Houston Criminal Attorney if you are involved in certain types of legal matters in the state of Texas. Of course, if you don’t know anything about the law, how will you know when you should seek the services of a qualified lawyer? The truth is, there are some basic things that are easy to learn about the legal system that help you determine if you need legal counsel and which type of professional to acquire.

First of all, you need to know that the criminal justice system is based on two things: actus reus and mens rae. Actus reus is the committing of an act of guilt while mens rae is the state of mind when committing the act. This defines a crime as an act of guilt (that breaks a law) committed by a person with the intention of said act. Thus, if you are accused of committing a crime it is because it has been determined that you had the intention of participating in an illegal activity and then committed to the activity. A Houston Criminal Law Attorney can help you better understand the terms.

Secondly, you should know that there are two types of crimes: misdemeanors and felonies. Misdemeanors are crimes that can be punishable by imprisonment for under a year. Misdemeanors include things like:
*Petty theft and larceny
*Driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol (without incident)
*Minor in possession of alcohol
*Reckless driving
*Trespassing
*Disorderly conduct

Felonies, then, are crimes that can be punishable by imprisonment of more than a year. Felonies include things like:
*Murder
*Assault
*Rape
*Kidnapping
*Robbery
A qualified Houston Criminal Attorney can help you determine what action you should take based on which category of crime in which your case falls.

Determining if a crime has been committed is only part of the criminal law process. It is important to have a Criminal Law Attorney because the other side of criminal law is sentencing, or punishment. Every crime has a set type of punishment that has been determined to be suitable. This punishment can be jail time, fines, community service, or a combination of these. Your attorney can often negotiate these limitations based on your personal employment, financial, and family responsibilities, which is another reason they are a worthy investment.

The bottom line is that if you are considering hiring a professional Houston Criminal Law Attorney then you should at least see if you can get a free consultation. Many lawyers offer this service to help educate potential clients on the complexities of the legal system and to help ease their mind. In fact, the peace of mind you can get from knowing that a qualified professional is handling your case for you is usually worth what they charge.

Summary of Popular US Visa Categories

Here, we will discuss different Visa Types issued by United States Citizenship and Immigration Services.

Every foreign national, seeking to enter the United States for different reasons must obtain a US Visa, before entering United States. Depending upon the different needs of foreign nationals United States Citizenship and Immigration Services offer different types of Visa.

Normally we can categorize different Visa types into two popular categories:
1.Nonimmigrant Visa (For temporary stay in United States)
2.Immigrant Visa (For permanent stay in United States)

Depending upon particular requirements of foreign nationals and their purpose of visit to United States, US Citizenship and Immigration Services offer following types of Visa:

1.B-1 Business Visa US Citizenship and Immigration Services offer B-1 Business Visa to foreign nationals working for any foreign company. Foreign citizens willing to visit the United States for business purposes (it should not involve receiving salary or payment) are eligible to apply for a B-1 Business Visa.

2.B-2 Tourist Visa Foreign national who wish to visit United States for touring purposes, spending vacations or for medical treatment are eligible to apply for B-2 Tourist Visa. Citizens of countries qualifying for Visa Waiver Program also need B-2 Tourist Visa, if they plan to stay in United States for more than 90 days.

3.H-1B Work Visa This type of Visa helps college educated professionals with special skills (like Doctors, Engineers, Scientists) to enter United States, in order to make valuable contribution in American development. However, there is one constraint, a maximum of 65,000 H-1B Visas can be issued in one year. Professionals with H-1B Visa can stay in United States for a maximum of three years. However, it can be extended if required, but the maximum period of stay cannot exceed more than six years. One advantage with H-1B Visa holders is that, they can apply for Permanent Immigrant Status (Green Card), if their company is ready to sponsor.

4.H-2B Work Visa H-2B Visa is a different type of work Visa which is issued to skilled and unskilled workers (for non-agricultural jobs). Every year a maximum of 66,000 H-2B Visas are issued. Those foreign nationals are eligible for H-2B work Visas who are eager to come to United States for a temporary or seasonal job (non-agricultural) offered by US employer.

5.C-1 Transit Visa Foreign nationals who need to enter United States in order to transit to another country need C-1 Transit Visa. People with C-1 Transit Visa are allowed to travel (for a maximum of 29 days) in United States when their destination is another country. However, people holding B-1 Business Visa or B-2 Tourist Visa doesnt need Transit Visa. Citizens from countries eligible for Visa Waiver Program also dont need a Transit Visa.

6.F-1 Student Visa USCIS offers F-1 Student Visa to foreign Students willing to undergo higher studies in United States. Foreign students seeking F-1 Students Visa must have a valid educational purpose for coming to United States. However, only students participating in full time educational programs are eligible to apply for F-1 Student Visa, this type of Visa is not for part time students. Students with F-1 Visa can stay in United States till the end of their educational session. F-1 Visa is multi-entry Visa, and they are free to enter United States many times (before end of their study period). They are also allowed to travel freely anywhere in United States. They are also allowed to do practical trainings during their study period to gain work experience. In many cases, students obtaining a bachelor or master’s degree are sponsored by their employer for an H-1B Work Visa. This is the most important advantage attached with F-1 Students Visa.

7.J-1 Exchange Visitor Visa As the name suggests, J-1 Exchange Visitor Visa is for individuals participating in exchange visitor programs organized by Education and Cultural Institutions or Business Houses. J-1 Exchange Visitor Visa helps industrial trainees, students, teachers, research assistants, scholars, and people on cultural missions who are participating in a program of studies, training, research, or a cultural enrichment program designed for such individuals by the United States Department of State, through its Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.

There are several other Visa Types targeting specific needs of people. You will get detailed information about them in next edition of our Newsletter.

Legal Copyright Eligibility For Copyright Protection

There are many laws that protect people in the world. Some of these laws are meant to protect rights covered under the Bill of Rights, and other rights are meant to protect the things we create. The eligibility for copyright protection is extended to anyone who is able to create something that is tangible.

There are international laws that provide copyright protection, and the laws for people living in the United States are covered under the doctrine of 17 USCA Section 102(a). The eligibility for copyright protection is clearly outlined in this document and business owners would fare well to spend a little bit of time reading through this doctrine because it may keep someone else from stealing the royalties of your work.

The eligibility for copyright protection extends to any tangible thought that is applied to paper. If it is still in your mind or in the development process where the idea has not been put down on paper or some other solid form, then the eligibility for copyright protection will not apply to it. Some people expect this to apply and are sorely disappointed when they are turned down at the copyright registration office.

If you want to create a novel or other literary work, then it would qualify for eligibility for copyright protection. Perhaps you are a photographer or a tourist who captured an exquisite photo of an event that is a once-in-a-life time experience. Since you placed yourself at great risk taking the photograph, you want to register the photo and copyright it so that other people can not make money from it without your approval. That photograph falls under the eligibility for copyright protection.

If you wanted to create a description of the photograph, then that description would qualify for eligibility for copyright protection as long as it is written down. The information can be stored on any means that you like such as compact disk, a computer or included as a caption underneath the picture and framed. All methods used to create the description fall under the eligibility for copyright protection.

Although a sculpture would not be considered a written work, it is still a method of expression that has a solid and tangible form to it. The sculpture falls under the auspices of eligibility for copyright protection. No further documentation is really necessary. It is real and can be held. Therefore, it is protected by copyright from the second it is created. That fact should spur the creative juices in many people who were unaware of what is covered under copyright protection.

If you have only an idea to reflect on, then that idea does not fall under the auspices of eligibility for copyright protection. The idea might be covered under a confidentiality agreement if you hire someone to take your idea and develop a product description from it, or content for your business website. When the idea becomes a mode for expression, then it maintains eligibility for copyright protection.

How To Get A Workers Visa With The Help Of A Miami Immigration Lawyer That Is Skilled And Reliable

There are circumstances which prove to be difficult for employers within Miami, and one such circumstance involves being able to employ individuals from outside of the United States. Doing so can be a great idea for employers because of the great set of qualities that these individuals have, but to be able to employ these individuals can require a substantial amount of work to ensure that everything is done legally.

People who wish to employ individuals from overseas need to ensure that the proper arrangements are made with regards to the workers visa that is needed by the prospect worker. The entire process of securing a workers visa can be relatively complex, and this is something that is common to most legal procedures, so people within Miami who are hoping to get into situations of this nature need to be prepared for the work that needs to go along with everything.

Logically, it helps for employers within Miami to get in touch with a reliable Miami immigration lawyer that can provide the right form of assistance in helping you secure the workers visa that you need for your prospect worker, and this includes help in handling all of the paperwork that will be necessary.

To give you a better idea of what needs to be done in order to successfully secure a workers visa for your prospect worker, here is a basic rundown of what needs to be done:

Arrange All Paperwork

First of all, there are certain documents that need to be arranged, and people who are in the process of securing a workers visa need to make sure that the documents that they have in their hands are the correct ones. Once these documents have been set, they will need to be filed with the US Citizenship and Immigration Services and the US Department of Labor. Going through this should be easy if you have a Miami immigration lawyer to help you arrange all the paperwork and file them all with the proper authorities.

Actual Visa Application

After all of the documents have been arranged and filed with the proper authorities, the employee would need to file their visa application at the nearest consulate or embassy within Miami. There will also be an interview as well as a medical examination that will need to be taken before the visa will be approved.

Being able to successfully go through the steps involved in securing a workers visa is best done with the help of a good Miami immigration lawyer that has the right set of skills needed in handling the legal aspect of such issues.